Slavery in Louisiana
In 1712, there were only 10 Africans in all of Louisiana. In this early period, European indentured servants submitted to 36-month contracts did most of the work clearing land and laboring on small-scale plantations. This would change dramatically after the first two ships carrying captive Africans arrived in Louisiana in 1719. These ships, which originated in the West Coast of Africa, carried captive rice farmers who brought the agricultural expertise to grow Louisiana’s rice plantations into profitable businesses for their European owners. In addition to enslaved Africans and European indentured servants, early Louisiana’s plantation owners used the labor of Native Americans. In 1722, nearly 170 indigenous people were enslaved on Louisiana’s plantations. Marriages were relatively common between Africans and Native Americans. “Grif” was the racial designation used for their children. The Africans enslaved in Louisiana came mostly from Senegambia, the Bight of Benin, the Bight of Biafra, and West-Central Africa. A few of them came from Southeast Africa.
In 1795, there were 19,926 enslaved Africans and 16,304 free people of color in Louisiana. The German Coast, where Whitney Plantation is located, was home to 2,797 enslaved workers. After the United States outlawed the Atlantic slave trade in 1807, many captives came to Louisiana from the Upper South through the domestic slave trade. Thousands were smuggled from Africa and the Caribbean through the illegal slave trade. Over the course of the nineteenth century, the population of free people of color in Louisiana remained relatively stable, while the population of enslaved Africans skyrocketed. Just before the Civil War in 1860, there were 331,726 enslaved people and 18,647 free people of color in Louisiana. The German Coast’s population of enslaved people had grown four times since 1795, to 8,776.
Under French rule (1699-1763), the German Coast became the main supplier of food to New Orleans. German immigrants, white indentured servants and enslaved Africans produced the land that sustained the growing city. Enslaved Africans cleared the land and planted corn, rice, and vegetables. They built levees to protect dwellings and crops. They also served as sawyers, carpenters, masons, and smiths. They raised horses, oxen, mules, cows, sheep, swine, and poultry. Enslaved people also served as cooks, handling the demanding task of hulling rice with mortars and pestles. In plantation kitchens, they preserved the foodways of Africa.
Enslaved people led a grueling life centered on labor. They worked from sunup to sundown, to make life easy and enjoyable for their enslavers. Enslaved women who served as wet-nurses had to care for their owner’s children instead of their own. Enslaved people kept a tenuous grasp on their families, frequently experiencing the loss of sale.
Because of the harsh nature of plantations – from labor to punishment – enslaved people resisted their captivity by running away. Enslaved people often escaped and became maroons in the swamps to avoid deadly work and whipping. Those who were caught suffered severe punishment such as branding with a hot iron, mutilation, and eventually the death penalty.
During the Spanish period (1763-1803), Louisiana’s plantation owners grew wealthy from the production of indigo. Indigo is a brilliant blue dye produced from a plant of the same name. This dye was important in the textile trade before the invention of synthetic dyes. It was also a trade-good used in the purchase of West African captives in the Atlantic slave trade.
Enslaved women worked in the indigo fields growing and maintaining the crop. Enslaved men typically worked to produce the dye from the plants. In order to create the dye, enslaved workers had to ferment and oxidize the indigo plants in a complicated multi-step process. To begin, enslaved workers harvested the plants and packed the leaves into a large vat called a steeper, or trempoire. Once inside the steeper, enslaved workers covered the plants with water. After soaking for several hours, the leaves would begin to ferment. This process could take up to a day and a half, and it was famously foul-smelling. Enslaved workers had to time this process carefully, because over-fermenting the leaves would ruin the product. Once fermented, the leaves dyed the water a deep blue. Enslaved workers siphoned this liquid into a second vat called a beater, or batterie. In the batterie, workers stirred the liquid continuously for several hours to stimulate oxidation.
Finally, enslaved workers transferred the fermented, oxidized liquid into the lowest vat, called the reposoir. Here, they introduced lime to hasten the process of sedimentation. In this stage, the indigo separated from the water and settled at the bottom of the tank. Once it was fully separated, enslaved workers drained the water, leaving the indigo dye behind in the tank. Enslaved workers dried this sediment and cut it into cubes or rolled it into balls to sell at market.
The indigo industry in Louisiana remained successful until the end of the eighteenth century, when it was destroyed by plant diseases and competition in the market. After enslaved workers on Etienne DeBore’s plantation successfully granulated a crop of sugar in 1795, sugar replaced indigo as the dominant crop grown by enslaved people in Louisiana. Sugar production skyrocketed after the Louisiana Purchase (1803) and a large influx of enslaved people to the territory, including thousands brought from Saint Domingue (Haiti).
The core zone of sugar production ran along the Mississippi River, between New Orleans and Baton Rouge. In the 1830s and 1840s, other areas around Bayou Lafourche, Bayou Teche, Pointe Coupee, and Bayou Sara, and the northern parishes also emerged as sugar districts despite the risk of frost damage. In 1817, plantation owners began planting ribbon cane, which was introduced from Indonesia. This cane was frost-resistant, which made it possible for plantation owners to grow sugarcane in Louisiana’s colder parishes. In 1822, the larger plantation owners began converting their mills to steam power. This was advantageous since ribbon cane has a tough bark which is hard to crush with animal power.
Sugarcane was planted in January and February and harvested from mid-October to December. After the planting season, enslaved workers began work in other areas on the plantation, such as cultivating corn and other food crops, harvesting wood from the surrounding forests, and maintaining levees and canals. The harvest season for sugarcane was called the “grinding season,” or roulaison. It began in October. Field hands cut the cane and loaded it into carts which were driven to the sugar mill. At the mill, enslaved workers fed the cane stalks into steam-powered grinders in order to extract the sugar juice inside the stalks. This juice was then boiled down in a series of open kettles called the Jamaica Train. In the last stage, the sugar crystallized. Sugar plantations produced raw sugar as well as molasses, which were packed into wooden barrels on the plantation and shipped out to markets in New Orleans.
The open kettle method of sugar production continued to be used throughout the 19th century. In the 1840s, Norbert Rillieux, a free man of color from Louisiana, patented his invention, the multiple effect evaporator. This invention used vacuum pans rather than open kettles. It was safer and produced a higher-quality sugar, but it was expensive to implement and only the wealthiest plantation owners could afford it before the Civil War.
Because of the nature of sugar production, enslaved people suffered tremendously in South Louisiana. The sugar districts of Louisiana stand out as the only area in the slaveholding south with a negative birth rate among the enslaved population. Death was common on Louisiana’s sugar plantations due to the harsh nature of the labor, the disease environment, and lack of proper nutrition and medical care.